ESP-Now Wrapper

Relates to #

Github repo #

Status #

Not satisfactory, as it is not reliable. The ESP-Now does not have a quality of service concept that ensures transmission like TCP, given the broadcast nature of the protocol. Also the handling of a wifi gateway does not allow a large enough listening time, so a wifi gateway is not possible and a serial one has to be developer.

Examples #

Broadcast #

Arduino Broadcast example
#include <Arduino.h>
#include <ArduinoJson.h>
#include <WiFi.h>

#include <ConfigUtils.h>
#include <EspNowWrapper.h>
#include <ESPStringUtils.h>

DynamicJsonDocument config(5*1024);//5 KB
DynamicJsonDocument secret(1*1024);//1 KB
WiFiClient wifi;//needed to stay on global scope
NowApp espnow;

uint32_t cycle_count = 0;

String topic;

void meshMessage(String &payload,String from){
  Serial.printf("RX> from(%s) => [%s]\n",from.c_str(),payload.c_str());

void setup() {
  timelog("Boot ready");

  timelog("config loaded");

  String ssid = secret["wifi"]["access_point"];
  String pass = secret["wifi"]["password"];
  timelog("config loaded");

  byte mac[6];
  topic = "espnow/"+hextab_to_string(mac);



  timelog("setup() done");


void loop() {
  timelog("loop start cycle ("+String(cycle_count)+")");
  espnow.broadcast("Hello Everyone ("+String(cycle_count)+")");

MQTT Gateway #

Not successfully tested yet.

Frequently Asked Questions #

Comments, Questions and suggestions are welcome on the Home Smar Mesh - Discord server

Is it possible for a device to identify its ESP-Now peers ?
  • Given the ESP-Now API Reference, it looks like that it is a low level point to point messaging including broadcast, but not more. Therefore it’s only based on mac addresses and does not have a higher level management. If it’s needed to discover devices without entering their mac manually as a peer list, then it’s probably better to look for ESP-Mesh which is intended to manage a fleet of devices. This ESP-Mesh-Wrapper is a wrapper for Arduino framework to make usage ESP-Mesh easier.
  • but I’m not really much satisfied with the custom protocols ideas, the ESP is at its best with wifi, when it comes to 2.4 GHz mesh solutions, why use a custom one while Standards exist like zigbee and Thread.
Can ESP-Now solve the 'Provisioning' Problem or make it easier ?
  • The provisioning dilemma is unfortunately common to all protocols and is a Home Automation Nightmare : “Provisioning / Pairing / Joining / Configuring”.

Let’s first have a look on other protocols deal with provisioning :

  • Zigbee : Is the worst I’ve ever seen, as the state is not visible to the user shared between a device and a server, if a device goes offline it still thinks it’s paired, to overcome temporary network shortage, and if you want it to join a new network you need to actively be playing around with it to figure out how each device has a different way to be reset and then enable pairing on the gateway…

  • Wifi : has a secred that each device has to know, but how can you give that secret, the own hotspot is not easy, as you need a webserver and manual entry, there are some protocols designed to make that easier :

  • DDP Device Provisioning Protocol

  • SmartConfig : this is another example, you can read more about Unified Provisioning on the Espressif website

Now, we might be disgusted from wifi for two reasons, provisioning and also range which is very limited compared to mesh networks that have repeaters.

  • Custom RF : e.g. the same here applies for ESP-NOW or any other custom mesh such as the SimpleMesh which is as it’s names suggest simple, but also stable. Changing the battery is not more complex than changing the battery. The way I solved the configuration issue there, is by an automated script run after attaching a devices with the debugger, it reads the serial number, which has an associated short id coming from a config file. That short id will be used in radio packets as unique ID, I could also assign a master key for encryption, but I did not need security as it is only about light and temperature values, no control.

So when it comes to ESP-Now, you also need to configure each of them to give them the security with “esp_now_set_pmk()” if you do not want everyone using your devices to spy on each other. The problem gets bigger if you want to give your devices to a user that has to use it securely on his network with a unique pmk and that user does not want to be flashing and messing with a configuration.

To summarize, there’s no way around a “provisioning” process whatever protocol you use unless you need no security, nor networks isolation, or can flash the secret uniquely for each device, which is also a sort of provisioning. And not mentioning the provisioning that needs an internet connection to synchronise with a backend and user account.